EU directive on the protection of animals used for science (PDF)
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For research using animals to be both ethical and scientifically rigorous and authorised it must meet high welfare standards and embed the 3Rs. The 3Rs are:
- Replacement – methods which avoid or replace the use of animals
- Reduction – methods that minimise the number of animals used per experiment
- Refinement – methods which minimise any suffering and improve animal welfare.
Page last updated: 14 March 2022