General guidance - Innovate UK


Funding rules

Innovate UK provides funding to support and stimulate innovation in the UK economy. We do this by encouraging businesses to work with other commercial and research organisations. We largely require that projects are led by businesses. Other types of organisations can apply in collaboration with a business partner.

Innovation is never easy, especially if it involves multiple organisations or is in the early stages of taking a new idea to market. Sometimes numerous businesses might need to be brought together with the help of a research and technology organisation (RTO) leading the project. This can happen if:

  • the competition allows them to lead
  • no business in the consortium has the capacity to lead the project
  • the work is essential to lay foundations for the growth of an early stage industry, and the collaborative research is to be undertaken by businesses who are at the same point in the value chain

Innovate UK recognises the opportunity for innovation projects to be led by RTOs. This is subject to them being in collaboration with two or more businesses.

They need to make sure that those with the right skills are doing the right work at the right time. With those in the consortium that are best placed to lead and deliver the overall project can do so, allowing businesses, especially small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to focus on their contribution, route-to-market and exploitation.

The funding rates you can receive will depend on the size and type of your organisation and your role in the project. Organisations fall into three categories:

  • businesses
  • research organisations
  • public sector organisations or charities undertaking research activity

Each participant must determine under which type of organisation it would be classified. Innovate UK is unable to advise which organisation type should be selected.


A business is defined as an enterprise undertaking economic activities.

The definition of micro, SME used by Innovate UK is set out in the company accounts guidance.

If you are applying for an award funded under State aid the definitions are set out in the European Commission recommendation of 6 May 2003.

When you select the category for your business as micro, small, medium or large, you must take into consideration any ownership, interest or association with a parent company or group of companies.

A large business in this context means any enterprise which is not an SME.

To be eligible as a UK registered business you must have a Companies House registration number. A registration number that does not relate to a fully registered UK business will not be eligible to apply for funding, for example FC or BR prefixes. Businesses registered in the Channel Islands, Isle of Man or Crown Dependencies are not eligible for funding as a UK business.

Research organisation

When referring to research organisations, Innovate UK uses the descriptions contained within the statutory guidance for the UK subsidy control regime, Subsidy Control Act 2022 to clarify if the organisation is acting without economic interest.

Within Innovate UK, this usually applies to the following types of organisations:

  • academic institutions or universities (higher education institutions (HEIs))
  • charities
  • not-for-profit
  • public sector organisations
  • research and technology organisations (RTOs), including Catapults
  • public sector research establishments (PSRE)
  • research council institutes
  • research organisations

This list is not comprehensive and is subject to change and exceptions.

Research organisations should be non-profit distributing to qualify and not acting with economic interest in the project. They should explain how they will disseminate the output of their project research as outlined in the application.

Research organisations undertaking non-economic activity can be funded as follows:

  • 80% of full economic costs if you are a Je-S registered institution such as an academic
  • 100% of eligible costs for all other research organisations

Research organisations which are engaged in economic activity as part of the project will be treated as business enterprises for the purposes of funding.

FEC and Joint electronic Submission (Je-S) system

Universities, HEIs and other research organisations which are registered on Je-S must first submit their costs through this system. The output figures and document showing the costs approved must then be added onto the specific Innovate UK application for submission.

Only the output figure of 80% of the full economic costs are included as costs for Je-S applicants. The remaining 20% should not be shown on the finance table or forms for the Innovate UK application.

Research costs submitted through Je-S must be in line with business and participation rules.

Public sector organisation or charity

Public sector organisations and charities can work with businesses to achieve innovation through knowledge, skills and resources. These organisations must not take part in any economic activity or gain economic benefit from a project.

They can apply for 100% of funding for their eligible costs under the following conditions:

  • they are undertaking research, which can be experimental, theoretical or critical investigation work to gain knowledge, skills or understanding vital to the project
  • they meet requirements for dissemination of their project results and they state in the application how they will do this
  • they include their eligible costs for research purposes in the total research organisation involvement
  • they make sure they are not applying for funding towards costs which are already being paid by the public purse such as labour and overheads

Third sector

Third sector organisations are primarily voluntary and community, such as associations, self-help groups, mutuals and cooperatives. Third sector organisations can be non-funding partners in a project.

Subsidy control (and State aid where relevant)

The support we provide is consistent with the Subsidy Control Act 2022.

The Subsidy Control Act 2022 definition of a ‘subsidy’ means financial assistance which:

  1. Is given by a public authority. This can be at any level: central, devolved, regional or local government or a public body.
  2. Makes a contribution (this could be a financial or an in-kind contribution) to an enterprise, conferring an economic advantage that is not available on market terms. Examples of a contribution are grants, loans at below market rate, or a loan guarantee at below market rate or allowing a company to use publicly owned office space rent free. An enterprise is anyone who puts goods or services on a market. An enterprise could be a government department or a charity if they are acting commercially.
  3. Affects international trade. This can be trade with any World Trade Organisation (WTO) member or, more specifically, between the UK and a country with whom it has a free trade agreement (FTA). For example, if the subsidy is going towards a good which is traded between the UK and the EU this could affect trade between the EU and the UK. It is not necessary to consider whether the subsidy could harm trade, just whether there could be some sort of effect. Subsidies to very local companies or a small tourist attraction are unlikely to be a problem as this is unlikely to affect international trade.

Subsidy (or State aid in EU context) confers an advantage on a selective basis to organisations that take part in economic activity, which distorts or threatens to distort competition.

Each Innovate UK or UK Research and Innovation competition will have its own eligibility and scope criteria.

What types of subsidy are prohibited?

There are types of subsidy which are prohibited under the Subsidy Control Act 2022:

  1. Subsidies dependent on export performance, for example giving a subsidy to a baker on the condition that they export a certain quantity of bread to another country.
  2. Subsidies that are dependent on domestic inputs usage, for example giving a subsidy to a baker on the condition that they use 50% UK flour in their product.
  3. Subsidies in the form of unlimited state guarantees to enterprises, where the subsidy giver places no limit on the amount of debt or liabilities covered, or where the duration of the guarantee is similarly unlimited.
  4. Subsidies subject to a condition that the enterprise relocates all or part of its existing economic activities, and the relocation of those activities would not occur but for the giving of the subsidy. Unless specific social or economic conditions are met.
  5. Subsidies granted to ‘ailing or insolvent enterprises’ (defined as enterprises highly likely to fail in the short to medium term in the absence of subsidy), where there is no credible restructuring plan to restore the business in question to long-term profitability.

Financial viability and eligibility

Innovate UK is unable to award funding to organisations that are considered to be in financial difficulty. All applicant organisations are subjected to financial viability and eligibility checks to ensure they are suitable for public funding.

How do EU State aid regulations now affect Innovate UK awards?

For awards made from 4 January 2023, the majority are subject to Subsidy Control Act 2022. EU State aid rules now only apply in certain limited circumstances:

Undertakings in difficulty

In the unusual circumstance of an award having to be made under the EU GBER regulation, the applicant must pass ‘undertaking in difficulty’ checks as defined by GBER (2014).

Further information on State aid

The State aid branch of the Department for Business and Trade has lead responsibility within the UK for coordination and development of State aid policy. The guidance on the UK’s international obligations has further information. You can also visit the European Commission’s information on State aid.

If the European Commission considers a business or any undertaking to have been in receipt of State aid due to ineligibility for exemption under GBER, that undertaking is likely to be required to repay any aid received to the value of the gross grant equivalent.

Minimal Financial Assistance (MFA) and EU de minimis awards

For organisations applying for MFA, the total award which can be given to each organisation is up to a maximum of £315,000 over a rolling three financial year period.

This includes cumulation of grants under the EC’s de minimis regulation for the same period. The maximum total under the EC regulation is €300,000.

This is for all project types and for most purposes, including operating aid. You can learn more about MFA subsidies in the chapter two in the Subsidy Control Act 2022 and de minimis regulation.

The following are not funded by Innovate UK under MFA or de minimis and this is made clear again for each individual competition:

  • enterprises in fishery and aquaculture
  • enterprises in the processing and marketing of fishery and aquaculture products
  • enterprises in primary production of agricultural products
  • enterprises active in the processing and marketing of agricultural products
  • top up awards made under approved State aid schemes, resulting in a circumvention of the aid intensities set out in the rules attached to such schemes. In these cases, it can only be awarded towards separate eligible costs
  • subsidies dependent on export performance, for example giving a subsidy to a manufacturer linked to exporting a certain tonnage or amount of product to another country
  • subsidies contingent on the use of domestic content, for example stating that the beneficiary must use 50% UK manufactured inputs in the manufacture of their product

Enterprises applying for this funding will not need to go through the same level of financial viability and eligibility tests, nor will the undertaking in difficulty test apply.

We do our best to ensure that the information published in this guidance is up to date and accurate. If you want to draw something to our attention, please contact us at

This guidance is not a substitute for taking independent legal advice on your eligibility status, before applying for funding. Every applicant is responsible for securing their own independent legal advice to ensure they are lawfully eligible.

Innovate UK accepts no liability for actions arising from the use of our guidance. Innovate UK cannot be held responsible for the contents of any pages referenced by an external link.

De minimis aid

De minimis aid is a term used to describe small amounts of State aid that the European Commission expects will have a negligible impact on trade and competition. These do not require Commission approval.

The total de minimis aid which can be given to each organisation is €300,000 over a three year rolling period. This is for all project types and for most purposes, including operating aid. You can learn more from the de minimis regulation.

The following are not typically funded by Innovate UK under de minimis aid but this is made clear on an individual competition basis:

  • enterprises in fishery and aquaculture
  • enterprises in the processing and marketing of fishery and aquaculture products
  • enterprises in primary production of agricultural products
  • enterprises active in the processing and marketing of agricultural products
    • aid for export to third countries or EU member states, meaning the establishment and operation of a distribution network or expenditure linked to the export activity
    • aid contingent upon the use of domestic goods and services over imported goods and services
  • top up awards made under approved State aid schemes, resulting in a circumvention of the aid intensities set out in the rules attached to such schemes; in these cases it can only be awarded towards separate eligible costs

The undertakings in difficulty test does not apply under de minimis rules.

Last updated: 26 April 2024

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